USDA Announces Hemp Regulations

This morning, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue announced the establishment of the U.S. Domestic Hemp Production Program. The program, as stipulated by Congress in the 2018 Farm Bill, will establish a regulatory framework for hemp production in the country.

Secretary Perdue made the announcement in a YouTube video titled “USDA’s Hemp Policy.” Later in the week, an interim final rule formalizing the program will be published in the Federal Register, according to the USDA’s website. “The rule includes provisions for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to approve hemp production plans developed by states and Indian tribes including: requirements for maintaining information on the land where hemp is produced; testing the levels of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol; disposing of plants not meeting necessary requirements; and licensing requirements,” reads the press release. “It also establishes a federal plan for hemp producers in states or territories of Indian tribes that do not have their own approved hemp production plan.” The interim final rule will go into effect as soon as it is published in the Federal Register, which should be by the end of this week.

You can find a preview of the rule here. The agency has also developed guidelines for sampling and testing procedures, which you can find here. Those documents are meant to provide more information for hemp testing laboratories.

You can watch the YouTube video and read the announcement he made below:

Hello everyone, as I travel across this great country of ours, I hear a lot about a strong interest in a new economic opportunity for America’s farmers: the production of hemp. Which is why today I am pleased to announce the USDA has published the rule establishing the US domestic hemp production program. We said we’d get it done in time for producers to make planning decisions for 2020 and we followed through. We have had teams operating with all hands-on-deck to develop a regulatory framework that meets Congressional intent while seeking to provide a fair, consistent and science-based process for states, tribes, and individual producers who want to participate in this program. As mandated by Congress, our program requires all hemp growers to be licensed and includes testing protocols to ensure that hemp grown under this program is hemp and nothing else. The USDA has also worked to provide licensed growers access to loans and risk management products available for other crops. As the interim final rule, the rule becomes effective immediately upon publication in the federal register. But we still want to hear from you. Help us make sure the regulations meet your needs. That’s why the publication of the interim final rule also includes a public comment period continuing a full and transparent rulemaking process that started with a hemp listening session all the way back in March 2019. At USDA, we are always excited when there are new economic opportunities for our farmers and we hope the ability to grow hemp will pave the way for new products and markets. And I encourage all producers to take the time to fully educate themselves on the processes, requirements and risk that come with any market or product before entering this new frontier. The Agricultural Marketing Service will be providing additional information, resources and educational opportunities on the new program. And I encourage you to visit the USDA hemp website for more information. As always, we thank you for your patience and input during this process.

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North Coast Analytical & North Coast Testing Accredited to ISO 17025:2017

According to a press release published earlier this month, the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA) announced the accreditation of both North Coast Analytical Laboratories and North Coast Testing Laboratories to ISO 17025:2017 for cannabis testing.

Both labs are located in Streetsboro, Ohio, becoming A2LA’s first accredited labs in the state. North Coast Testing does cannabis testing for Ohio’s medical cannabis industry, whereas North Coast Analytical does testing for the hemp industry.

Carolyn Friedrich, Ph.D., scientific director at North Coast Testing, says they are excited to help ensure the safety of patients for Ohio’s medical cannabis program. “We are extremely proud of the work of our entire team in rapidly developing and implementing a comprehensive quality management program that can give all participants in the Ohio Medical Marijuana Control Program confidence in the quality and safety of products tested in our laboratory,” says Friedrich.

Nick Szabo, laboratory director at North Coast Analytical, says A2LA went “above and beyond at every step, we greatly appreciate their efforts. Our accreditation by A2LA is a testament to our ability to meet the most rigorous quality management standards in analytical testing of hemp products, and a vote of confidence in our team’s ability to perform at the highest levels.”

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Steep Hill Expands to Oklahoma

According to a press release published back in September, Steep Hill announced their expansion to the state of Oklahoma. Steep Hill, a cannabis science company that started with cannabis testing labs in California, has been on an impressive expansion trajectory over the past few years.

In 2016 and 2017, the company expanded into Pennsylvania, Washington D.C., Oregon, Hawaii, among other regions of the country. In May of 2018, they announced a plan to go international, expanding to places like Mexico, Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom via licensing agreements. As recently as March of 2019, Steep Hill announced plans to open a testing lab in New Jersey as well.

Kandice Faulkenberry, co-owner and CEO of Steep Hill Oklahoma, says they hope to raise the bar for cannabis lab testing in Oklahoma. “With Oklahoma being one of the fastest-growing medical markets in the nation, we are excited and honored to be a part of our state’s growth,” says Faulkenberry. “We hope to be a valuable resource in our community and Oklahoma’s cannabis industry. Through our partnership with Steep Hill, the world’s leading cannabis science company, we aim to raise the bar in laboratory services, education, and product safety for the medical cannabis industry in the Sooner State.”

Dr. Chris Orendorff, the other co-owner of Steep Hill Oklahoma, is a family physician based in Sallisaw, Oklahoma. “As a physician, I understand that safety and regulations are critical to patient outcomes and I look forward to providing the same assurance for my patients and fellow Oklahoma residents in the cannabis industry,” says Dr. Orendorff. “I am excited to partner with Steep Hill to provide the highest quality testing in the State of Oklahoma.”

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CBD Every Day: How to Make Your Own Infused Tinctures And Pain Relievers

By Sandra Hinchliffe

CBD, or cannabidiol, is a cannabinoid occurring naturally in the cannabis plant in varying percentages. More than 60 different types of cannabinoids have been described in scientific literature, with CBD occurring in the most concentrated amounts, after THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). CBD was first analyzed and described in depth by Dr. Raphael Mechoulam in 1963.

It should be noted here that CBD doesn’t start out as CBD in raw cannabis plant material. CBD begins as CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) and becomes CBD through the process of decarboxylation, when carbon atoms are dropped from the original CBDA molecule over time, or through the application of heat, or with both heat and time.

CBD is specific to the Cannabis sativa plant and does not occur in any other plant. However, similar cannabinoid-like chemistry can be found throughout the plant kingdom, such as the terpene beta-caryophyllene in black pepper, cloves and carnations, which has affinity for CB2 receptors. More studies are needed to understand the relationship of cannabinoids like CBD and cannabinoid-like substances in other plants to the endocannabinoid system as well as their effects and usefulness for humans and animals.

CBD has become one of the most talked about and promising plant medicines of the 21st century. Apart from the documented medicinal effects of CBD, many people are interested in this cannabinoid simply for the gentle, sober relief and relaxation effects that they have experienced while consuming CBD-rich cannabis plants and products.

Most people who consume CBD plants and products report that there is no psychoactive “high” from CBD. When compared with THC, the psychoactive effects and the health concerns for which CBD is therapeutic are not completely understood by scientists at this time. Your experience with CBD will depend on many factors, so it is important to embark on this exploration with both an open mind and skepticism.

CBD and CBDA Tincture Recipe

Making CBD-infused tinctures is an easy way to prepare CBD-rich cannabis for use in many herbal remedies. A good-quality tincture requires some very powerful alcohol; grain or any culinary-grade alcohol (150 proof or more) is required—anything less will be disappointing. Higher proofs are always better for creating tinctures, so if these higher-proof alcohols are available where you live, you will obtain the best results by using them. While these are culinary-grade, they are also extremely flammable, and you should not work with them around any open flame or spark. I always tincture with my kitchen window open and all appliances, except for the refrigerator, turned off.

Choose the whole-plant form that will work best for your needs. Whole flowers and leaves will lend their chlorophyll to the tincture and make it a lovely emerald color just like whole-plant oil infusions. Sifted hashish will have less or no chlorophyll. Full-extract or RSO will contain chlorophyll, similar to the flower and leaf tincture. Raw resins and rosin will be similar to sifted hashish. Chlorophyll has some of its own benefits as an antioxidant, and I prefer tinctures with it.

Once you have chosen the form of CBD-rich cannabis you would like to use in your tincture, you will want to make this as concentrated as possible so that it can serve as a base tincture for other recipes. You may also enjoy it on its own and make it as concentrated or mild as you desire.

If you are using flowers, leaves or sifted hashish, there is a good chance that they are not decarboxylated, which is a step you need to perform before you make the tincture. If the plant material you have chosen is already decarboxylated, or if you desire to tincture mostly CBDA, you may move forward with the tincturing part of the recipe, skipping the decarboxylation step.

You will hear a lot of different opinions about the exact temperature to decarboxylate CBDA into CBD! In some experiments, I have found that 275°F (135°C) for 60 minutes has produced tinctures that are rich in CBD. I most often decarb for 90 minutes, and this produces the best tincture in my experience. Decarboxylating your cannabis material longer than 90 minutes at that temperature may impart undesirable flavors, so it’s best to use this temperature (275°F) and time (90 minutes) for the best flavors in my experience.

The Decarboxylation Process

  1. Preheat the oven to 275°F (135°C).
  2. Place whatever form of cannabis you have selected into a glass or silicone baking dish with a lid. There is no need to chop the plant material for this process.
  3. Process in the oven for 90 minutes, covered with a lid that fits well to prevent as much of the terpene content from escaping as possible. Remove from the oven and allow to cool on the counter before coarsely chopping to perform the tincture process if you are using flowers, leaves or large chunks of hashish material.

The Essential Tinctures

My personal CBD medicine cabinet generally has one or more of these four tinctures available at any time. CBD or CBDA can be infused into these tinctures along with the other herbs, depending on your preference. As a general rule of thumb, I do think that tinctures work best when there are at least five milligrams to 10 mg of CBD or CBDA per 1-milliliter serving. The amount of CBD- or CBDA-rich cannabis that you add should be based on the calculations you have made for each serving size you desire.

Each of these four tinctures follows the same directions, with the only difference being the ingredients. See the directions below the ingredient lists to make approximately four ounces (120 ml) of each tincture.

Quick Relief Tincture

A simple formula for pain relief that pairs the anti-inflammatory roots of peony with CBD cannabis and other inflammation-fighting herbs.

  • 1/4 cup (25 grams) peony root, dried and sliced
  • 2 tbsp. (15 grams) frankincense serrata resin
  • 2 large thumb-size pieces fresh ginger root, peeled and chopped
  • CBD-rich cured cannabis flowers (decarboxylated before tincturing-see above) or CBDA-rich cured cannabis flowers
  • 1/2 cup (120 ml) 150-proof culinary alcohol (or a little more as needed to cover the herbs)

Sleepy-Time Tincture

A relaxing blend of herbs paired with CBD-rich cannabis. Try this with hot water or hot lemon balm tea before bed.

  • 2 large thumb-size pieces fresh turmeric, chopped
  • 1/4 cup (15 grams) fresh or dried chamomile flowers
  • 1/4 cup (15 grams) fresh or dried lemon balm leaves
  • 1/2 tsp. (1 gram) whole black peppercorns
  • CBD-rich cured cannabis flowers (decarboxylated before tincturing) or CBDA-rich cured cannabis flowers
  • 1/2 cup (120 ml) 150-proof culinary alcohol (or a little more as needed to cover the herbs)

Mood Therapy Tincture

This is an extremely effective mood-lifting tincture infused with CBD that’s great for when you are having a bad day or just feeling a little blue.

  • 1/3 cup or 5 sprigs (18 grams) fresh rosemary
  • 1 tbsp. (6 grams) ashwagandha powder
  • 50 saffron threads
  • 1 tbsp. (8 grams) frankincense serrata resin
  • CBD-rich cured cannabis flowers (decarboxylated before tincturing) or CBDA-rich cured cannabis flowers
  • 1/2 cup (120 ml) 150-proof culinary alcohol (or a little more as needed to cover the herbs)

Detox Tincture

Detox means a bunch of different things to many people. In my herbal remedy repertoire, “detox” is a kind of bitter tincture to have around when you’ve had a little too much to eat or drink. Cannabis is a bitter and cooling herb, and since this tincture is infused with other bitter herbs and CBD-rich cannabis, you’ll feel the relief right away.

  • 1 medium-sized fresh burdock root, chopped
  • 1 medium orange, peel only, chopped (wash the peel to remove any coating before using in this recipe)
  • 1 medium fresh dandelion root, washed, peeled, chopped
  • 1 tsp. (2 grams) fennel seeds
  • 1 tbsp. (8 grams) milk thistle
  • CBD-rich cured cannabis flowers (decarboxylated before tincturing) or CBDA-rich cured cannabis flowers
  • 1/2 cup (120 ml) 150-proof culinary alcohol (or a little more as needed to cover the herbs)

Directions

  1. Put all the herbs, including the cannabis, into an amber glass canning jar. Pour the alcohol over them. The alcohol should cover all the herbs completely. Affix the lid.
  2. Prepare a pan with very warm water and allow the jar to sit in the warm water until it cools to room temperature. This step will soften the resins and other ingredients. Shake the jar and put in a dark, warm spot in the kitchen.
  3. Allow the jar to rest for three to four weeks for best results. Shake the jar at least twice a week.
  4. Shake the jar before decanting and straining the tincture from the herbs through a cheesecloth-lined strainer. Squeeze out as much of the liquid from the herbs as possible.
  5. Prepare clean glass tincture bottles with dropper caps. Using a funnel or spout, fill each bottle and affix the caps. Use within six months for best results.

“Roll Your Own” Pain Pills

Everyone loves pain pills. More pain-relieving pharmaceutical drugs are sold in the United States than any other class of drug. From prescription-only opioid pain relievers like OxyContin and fentanyl to over-the-counter drugs like ibuprofen and Tylenol—we love our pharmaceutical pain pills. And we love them to death. People die because these pills become a lifestyle—instead of a rare necessity.

There are many of us who have rejected the death culture of pharmaceutical pain pills and have taken back our liberty to manage our own pain with home remedies. In locations where cannabis—CBD and all other cannabinoids—are legal, this gentle herb is often included in home remedies for pain management.

Pain pills are loved by humans for the convenience and fast relief they offer. When your hips and knees ache, the last thing you want to do is stand on your feet and make a decoction. We all want to lie down and pop some pain pills.

Now, if you’ve ever tried to make herbal gel capsules at home, you know how difficult they are to fill, their tendency to leak and get sticky, and sometimes they are a challenge to swallow. This recipe uses the ancient pill-making technique of rolling small (pea-size or smaller) spherical “pills” from a dough of blended herbs, resins and oils. Because you are “rolling your own,” these pills can be made as small as you need to make them—unlike gel capsules that have standard sizes and aren’t always suitable for people who need very small pills to swallow comfortably.

This easy-to-make pain pill recipe uses simple ingredients and is infused with measured doses of CBD so you can conveniently pop these whenever you need to. CBD pairs with a base of either pure frankincense serrata or frankincense frereana—both of which are noted in the traditional folk medicine practices of India and the Middle East for managing pain and inflammation while being cooling and soothing for the stomach. This recipe uses whole resin only; purchasing this resin in the powdered form is the most convenient way to work with this recipe. Do not replace whole resin frankincense with essential oil of frankincense—they are not the same.

Create your pills using the concentration of CBD you have calculated for each pill. I’ve had great results making these pills with three to five mg of CBD per pill and taking as many as five pills at a time. For proper digestion, always take one at a time if you are taking more than one, and always drink a glass of water. This recipe makes 100 or more small pea-size “pills.”

Ingredients

  • 1/2 cup (60 grams) whole food-grade frankincense serrata or frankincense frereana resin, powdered
  • 2 tbsp. (15 grams) acacia gum, powdered
  • 2 tbsp. (30 ml) CBD-in fused coconut oil, melted (concentrated with the dosage you desire for each pill)
  • 2 tsp. (10ml) boiling water, ora little more as needed to bring the other ingredients together into a pliable dough
  • Arrowroot, powdered

Directions

  1. In a bowl, combine the frankincense powder and acacia gum. Add the CBD oil and combine with the dry ingredients until it is thoroughly distributed.
  2. Add the boiling water and stir and knead until you have a “dough.” Add a little arrowroot powder as needed to bring this together so that it is not sticky and can be easily rolled between your fingers.
  3. Begin to roll out the pills in pea-sized pieces or smaller. Coat them in a little arrowroot powder as they are rolled.
  4. Place the pills on parchment paper on the drying rack of a dehydrator or in a slightly warm oven on a tray and allow them to dry at very low temperatures. The ideal drying temperature is 120°F (48°C) or less, and they will take about two to six hours to completely dry depending on the environment.
  5. Alternatively, the dough may be worked into a silicone mold with your desired pill sizes. This can be dried at low temperatures as described in step 4. When the pills are easily popped from the mold, put them on parchment paper and continue following the instructions in step 4 and complete their drying cycle.
  6. When the pills are dry, allow them to cool completely and transfer to the containers you would like to store them in. Amber glass bottles are suggested for best shelf life. Always store the pills with silica moisture absorbing packets made for food storage. This is a must that you should not skip; the pills are very prone to picking up moisture from the environment.

Use the pills within six months for best results.

This excerpt from Sandra Hinchliffe’s CBD Every Day: How to Make Cannabis-Infused Massage Oils, Bath Bombs, Salves, Herbal Remedies, and Edibles was edited for space. Order this highly recommended book at skyhorsepublishing.com or amazon.com.


Originally published in the August, 2019 issue of High Times magazine. Subscribe right here.

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HEXO Master Grower Agnes Kwasniewska Talks Gender Gaps, Genetics, Home Cultivation

For some in the still-forming legal cannabis space, the plant has been a lifelong passion, where a career almost seemed destined for ages, regardless of its legal status. For many others, marijuana has become part of their career options as laws changed. Agnes Kwasniewska falls into the latter despite appreciating cannabis and cultivation at large. Today, she is an award winning, milestone achieving, cannabis cultivation leader in the Canadian market. 

While she had a fondness for cannabis, and consumed recreationally, the agricultural professional had no experience growing it herself. “I knew what I wanted out of my bud, but I never grew it,” recalled Kwasniewska, who earned a master of science in entomology from McGill University in 2009. 

That would change in 2016 when the burgeoning cannabis industry would converge with her own blossoming cultivation career. That year, the Quebec-based consumer packaged goods cannabis brand HEXO Corp named Agnes Kwasniewska its Master Grower. She described her thought process when considering if cannabis was for her: “I thought, well, ‘Why not? Why wouldn’t I want to be part of this?’” 

The cultivation pro discussed the opportunity presented to her. “This was just a great in, to be able to work with such a unique plant and do it legally.”

Her hiring made headlines for several reasons. Credentials like Kwasniewska’s represented a welcomed expert addition to the cannabis community. That would be true today and was even more so the case in 2016. 

That said, her gender made much of the headlines. Unbeknownst to the now-Master Grower, her hiring represented a glass ceiling shattering moment in the Canadian cannabis cultivation space. HEXO’s recruitment of Agnes Kwasniewska made the company the first in the country to hire a female Master Grower. 

“I was quite surprised by it,” the Master Grower remembered. Agnes thought that the industry had to have had a female in the role before her. While accepting she’s the first in the legal market, Agnes still believes that the illicit market has seen its share of women in the role. 

Agnes Kwasniewska: Breaking The Grass Ceiling

The buzz about her hiring may have been the first time being woman came into work for Agnes. In previous interviews, she recalled her gender never playing a factor in the field. However, the news did give the newly minted Master Grower a sense of pride. Throughout the news cycle, work remained the same as usual, aside from a slight degree of added pressure. “[The milestone] did put a little bit more attention on me,” she said. “But I don’t find it changed the way I worked or the way I went about my day.” 

While the occasional media attention didn’t alter her work, Agnes did recognize its importance to her career. “I feel privileged to be able to start in this industry as the first female [Master Grower]. It’s nice to have that acknowledgment moving forward, and feel appreciated for the work that I did.” 

Since her 2016 hiring, Kwasniewska has achieved several significant achievements in the field. For her, being part of the HEXO’s scalability has to be one of the most significant moments to date. “When I started, we had only 7,000-square-feet of greenhouse. In the last three years, we’ve exploded to 1.3 million-square-feet of canopy space,” she explained. 

With great success often comes pain points, Agnes’ case included. From remaining compliant to changing public perception, she encountered several “growing pains” along the way. However, the Master Grower credits remaining agile as a key to her sustained success to date. “I had to stay very flexible and adaptable to change because everything was moving so fast,” she recalled. “Everything was so new that, sometimes, something could change from week to week.”

Remaining agile and adaptable paid off for Agnes. Both HEXO and cannabis community members took notice, and for much more than her gender. In September of 2019, Agnes was awarded the Master Grower of the Year title at the 2019 Grow Up Awards. 

In a press release announcing the news, HEXO CEO and co-founder, Sebastien St-Louis said of her work, “Here at HEXO we all know that Agnes is an exceptional role model and grower and has been instrumental in our success…We are extremely proud to see her great work recognized by her peers in the cannabis industry.”

The recognition and the gravity of her hiring combine to reveal just how much of an impact Kwasniewska makes in the space. The award-winner told High Times, “I’m really happy to have the opportunity to be a role model to people and…show women that they are capable of succeeding in this world and in this industry.”

Those hoping to become successful cultivators like her may want to start by growing their own plants at home. Under its laws, Canadians can grow up to four cannabis plants at home. Kwasniewska believes that giving people the chance to grow is the sensible option and agrees with the regulation. “I think it’s great for people to see how the plant behaves, how it works…I think it’s a vital experience and a fun gardening activity.”

In several American states, like New York, home growing is sticky, legally speaking. So much so that cannabis companies have urged state lawmakers to ban home cultivation. 

“I don’t see what the issue is,” said the Master Grower of the matter. In addition to benefitting home growers with a hands-on cultivation experience, Agnes pointed out that expert cultivation know-how is required to create plants on the level of a licensed producer. As such, little to no home growers could rival licensed products. 

“I’m not really worried about somebody having a few cannabis plants in their backyard.” She added, “I mean, not everyone out there has a green thumb either.”

When it comes to her work, Agnes and HEXO have several plans underway. That includes the recent release of a value flower brand, Original Stash. The Master Grower is also working on new genetics in the greenhouse, though she couldn’t elaborate much further than that. 

While details on new products were sparse, one thing was clear: Agnes Kwasniewska is in her zone. The cultivation expert continues to thrive in a space she never expected to be in just a few shorts years ago. Regardless of gender, her story represents one of a person who has stayed agile and kept learning. In doing so, she’s combined a passion for cultivation with a plant that once only seemed like a hobby. 

Now, she’s helping steer the course of the industry. “Keep an eye out for new genetics. It’s coming,” she said with a cheerful chuckle.

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CDC Announces Vape-Related Illnesses Appear To Be Declining

It appears that the mysterious vaping-related illness sweeping the United States has started to slow down. On Friday, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that the casualty rate for the as-yet-unexplained health condition is “leveling off or even declining.”

The most recent victim count — calculated last Tuesday — stands at 1,604 individuals who have shown signs of the condition. 125 cases were diagnosed over the last week, and 34 people have died from the illness.

“It’s serious and potentially fatal, but it is preventable,” said CDC principal deputy director Anne Schuchat to reporters. “There could be more than one cause.”

She said that the dip in cases might be due to the measures that authorities have taken to regulate the products. There has also been a wave of high profile arrests made of illegal vaporizing product manufacturers, and busts of brands found to be making dangerous vape products.

Schuchat also presented a hypothesis that e-cigarette use led teenagers to use “risky products” that cause the lung condition. Some authorities have blamed the spate of lung injuries on additives in vaping products, like the vitamin E acetate that is sometimes used as a thickening agent. The official also raised her concern over how winter-time flus and other respiratory illnesses could affect the people who have been stricken with the vape-related sickness.

Earlier this month, a Mayo Clinic surgical pathologist released a report based on findings from examining 17 victims. The investigation found that the lung condition showed similarities with chemical burns, as when individuals inhale mustard gas.

Vape-Related Illness Now Has a Name

Officials have started calling the lung condition EVALI, which stands for “e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury.” Concern over the illness has led many states and city governments to put temporary bans on e-cigarette and vaping products. In Massachusetts, Governor Charlie Baker’s ban on all vapes has faced legal challenges, but was recently ruled as acceptable by a state judge.

In Michigan, Governor Gretchen Whitmer has vowed to fight the state’s Supreme Court decision to block her ban of flavored e-cigs. The prohibition had been in effect for two weeks, after a month-long delay in implementation. Whitmer likened the urgency of the ban to the concern over her state’s water quality. “After seeing how the Flint water crisis was mishandled, it’s more important than ever that we listen to our public health officials when they make recommendations to protect our citizens,” she said.

Those are far from the only challenges to new vaping restrictions. In Utah, retailers sued the state’s Department of Health over creating the ban without public comment, claiming that the prohibition would severely harm their businesses.

Earlier this month, a group of governors from Northeastern states came together to discuss tactics for standardizing the regulation of vaping. One potential measure for the region was banning flavored e-cigarette products across the board, in hopes of slowing down the popularity of vaping among teenagers.

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