According to Masslive.com, the Massachusetts Cannabis Control Commission fined Curaleaf $250,000 “for failing to disclose a change of ownership and ask permission from state regulators before completing the transaction.” The news comes just weeks after the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) sent a warning letter to Curaleaf President Joseph Lusardi for making unsubstantiated health claimsand for misbranding their products as drugs.
Curaleaf, one of the largest cannabis companies in the United States, has dispensaries in a handful of locations across Massachusetts, with plans to open more locations. Curaleaf Massachusetts went from being a non-profit to being a for-profit business, then merged with a Canadian company to access the Toronto Stock Exchange.
The $250,000 fine is the largest penalty assessed by regulators to a state-licensed cannabis business to date. Curaleaf and the Cannabis Control Commission came to an agreement, signed in early August. “In assessing this fine against Respondent, the Commission acknowledges that Respondent’s violation was the result of Respondent’s good-faith but mistaken interpretation of the Commission’s regulations, that Respondent has fully cooperated with the Commission’s investigation, and that the Respondent has accepted responsibility,” reads the agreement.
Steven Hoffman, Chairman for the Cannabis Control Commission told the public that he thinks the company has been “very constructive and collaborative” in working with the Commission. “I think they were wrong, but I can understand they were acting in good faith,” says Hoffman.
The post Curaleaf Fined Big Time in Massachusetts appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.
Although summer doesn’t officially end until the Fall Equinox on September 21st, one could argue that energetically it ends as soon as Leo season ends on August 23rd. This is when we enter earth sign Virgo season, when we enter “back to school season,” also known as Pumpkin Spice season and autumn. In this way, our endless summer is truly at its climax right now, as the sun shines happily in Leo, the lion. As I mentioned in my Stoner’s Guide to Leo Season, this isn’t a time to play small, to be embarrassed about what we have to say or what we believe in. This isn’t a time to dim our light, no matter how loud or sexual or stoned it is. As Megan Thee Stallion coined, it’s officially “hot girl summer,” which means that we get to live our best, hottest lives. Sky’s out thighs out forever.
Hot girl summer is not only for everyone of every gender expression, it’s also whatever you want it to be. And in this part of the internet, we believe in being hot, stoned, and spiritual, so that’s what why I’m dubbing 2019 “Hot Stoned Summer” as well. If you care to join your High Priestess on this journey, grab some cannabis and your favorite method to partake in it, a journal, some crystals, and the blood of your enemies (jk about that last part). Let’s get to it.
Hot Stoned Spirituality
One of the major themes that Leo season has brought up for this Aquarius is that of EGO. Ego being the part of ourselves that our mind can identify with, that labels us, and that keeps us living in fear, identified with form. Ego likes to keep us “safe.” It can try and keep us small by comparing ourselves to other people. And in the height of summer, when it feels like everyone else is doing the most and flaunting whatever it is they’ve got, it can feel especially precarious to be proud of who you are and not compare yourself to people.
Leo season’s message is two-fold; while it can be dangerous to be egotistical and identify our worth as a human with what we’ve accomplished, and whatever measure of “success” we have, we also need (a little bit) of ego! We are allowed to have desires, to have ambitions, to have something that we strive toward. We are allowed to bask in our accomplishments, making sure we’re looking and feeling good, and we can use cannabis and ritual to help us do just that.
Meditation can feel like a scary hurdle if you’ve never done it before, but I promise; there’s no wrong way to meditate. And in fact, cannabis can offer you some solace with this, especially if you don’t know where to begin. If you’re going to be smoking before you meditate, try taking a hit of a hybrid strain of cannabis, the idea being that you can quiet your mind and stay present in your body without falling asleep. Working with CBD would also be a potent and healing option for some high meditation.
Too much sativa and your mind may start to race- too much indica and you may get a little too comfortable. Once you choose your method of inhalation, take a second to find a comfortable seat, either sitting up or laying down. You may wish to set a timer, starting with 3, 5, or 7 minutes if you’ve never meditated before. Close your eyes and find a comfortable breath. You may wish to practice the fourfold breath, inhaling- holding- exhaling- holding and beginning again, starting with 4 seconds for each part of the breath and then working up to 5, 6, or 7 seconds.
As you find a steady breath, start inhaling golden white light, filling your body with this healing. As you exhale, allow any worries to drift away, releasing any tension or anxiety you’re carrying in your body. Give yourself permission to exist in the present without any worry. You may wish to repeat a mantra to yourself as you continue inhaling white light and exhaling any worries. Some options “I am abundant.” “I am magick.” “I am divine love.” “I am at peace.” Whenever you’re done with your meditation, you’ll simply open your eyes and come back to your surroundings.
You can also use an app like Headspace, Calm, or Insight Timer for guided meditations after you partake in your cannabis of choice. Extra points if you meditate outside under the sun to fuel up during Leo season under Leo’s planetary ruler.
Offering of release
If imposter syndrome or ego is making it hard for you to believe in yourself, take some time to let that shit go! Write what you want to release on a piece of paper, and take a hit (or two or three). Let your ego know this is an offering for it, so it can stop feeding on you. Spend some time meditating on what you want to release, why you want to release this and why now’s the right time. Notice any resistance come up; honor this, recognizing how this resistance has helped you in the past. Take the time to journal and process around whatever you’re feeling and when you’re ready, you will burn this list up in a fireproof dish, cauldron, or over a pot of water on the stove. As you do this, tell the universe why you’re ready to release this. Let your ego know this is what it can feast on! Flush the ashes down the toilet, drink some water, smoke some more weed, shower, and know that it’s done.
Once you’ve mediated and released, it’s time to remind yourself that you’re hot shit! I love rituals of glamour, and Leo season is the time to indulge in these. A ritual is anything you can come back to that connects you with an intention. Your intention can be to feel powerful, to feel sensual, to ground, to heal, or to manifest big money. It doesn’t matter! This ritual will help you feel like the best version of yourself you can be.
Set up your space however you wish, playing some music that makes you dance and move your body, lighting incense and candles, turning your phone on silent. Wear something that aligns with your intention- you may wish to put something like lingerie on, or you can always work naked. If you wish to eat an edible or use a tincture, now is the time. I suggest an indica-heavy hybrid for this ritual, so you can be present with how you’re feeling in your body without getting too caught up in your thoughts. Now is the time to smoke, enjoying the inhale, and hit. When you’re ready you’ll start moving or dancing in front of a mirror and complimenting yourself. Say this out loud, admiring the way you move your body. Cannabis can help you release your inhibitions, so take more hits as necessary. If you don’t feel comfortable practicing this ritual, try only dancing or only complimenting yourself. Baby steps! Repeat as necessary.
TL;DR: Another way to do this ritual is to smoke naked in front of the mirror and admire your damn self.
Hot Stoned Style
Spirituality helps us find confidence from the inside-out, and style can help us find confidence from the outside-in. Summer is a time for living vibrantly and for owning our personal sense of style, and while stoners get a bad rep for not having the best #aesthetic, we can redefine hot stoner style this summer with a few easy tips.
Wear red, gold, orange, or yellow
It’s just a thing that everything is energy; everything we perceive as matter is just particles vibrating so fast we see them as solids. Everything has its own frequency including our thoughts and including colors! And colors are magick in their own right, and an extremely easy way for us to get into a specific energetic state.
If you want to channel the bold, luscious, loud and dramatic power of Leo this summer, may I suggest wearing red, gold, orange or yellow? There are infinite ways to do this, but if you really want to experience some color magick, I suggest wearing a monochrome outfit.
Red- The densest color. Grounding, passion, power, influence, authority, to be seen, heard, and listened to
Yellow/ Gold– Confidence, inner strength, center, abundance, warmth, wealth, happiness, joy
Some other ways to incorporate colors into your wardrobe: Nail polish, eyeshadow, lipstick, a hat or scarf, a bag or backpack, jewelry, a patch or pin on a jacket, or a single piece of clothing like a jacket or shirt. Before you head out with your new color coordinated fit, work with cannabis for a confidence boost so you can remember that the only thing you need to “pull something off” is your own permission.
Smoke with gold joint papers
If you want to feel like a million bucks and look like it, and if you have $45 to splurge, why not try wrapping your next joint with gold paper? Brands like Shine make literal 24k blunt wraps and gold rolling papers for the bougie stoner bitch in us all.
Hot stoned selfies
Leo season is about the sizzle of putting your best foot forward, and sometimes we have to remind ourselves of just how hot we are before we walk out the door to #hotgirlsummer. A simple ritual you can perform when you want to feel your best? Taking some selfies. Get ready, do your hair, put on your favorite look, get stoned, grab your vape or joint, and then snap some photos. It doesn’t matter if you post them or not, these are receipts for YOU to remember your power.
Hot Stoned Sex
Is there anything better than weed and sex? The options are really endless when it comes to the divine tango of these two vices. Not only can cannabis act as an aphrodisiac, it can also be turned into a wonderful lube and can be used as a gateway for us to reconnect to our bodies and pleasure. Summer is a time when we can relish in the senses and surrender to sensuality, and this wouldn’t be hot stoned summer without some sex.
Try experimenting with forced intox
If you’re looking to try something new this summer, may I suggest forcing your partner to get stoned, consensually of course? Forced intox, short for forced intoxication, is a consensual act where someone forces their partner to inhale smoke, in our case from cannabis. This can be done by making the submissive partner, the one who’s being “forced” to smoke, take hits or consume an edible. This can also be done mouth to mouth, by blowing smoke directly into the face of the sub, or through an apparatus like a gas mask. Whether or not you you’re kinky or already have an established power dynamic in your relationship, if this is something you’re interested in, talk to your partner! Negotiate how much cannabis would be consumed and how, safe words why you want to try this, and what you hope to get out of the experience. Fellow sex and weed witch Sophie Saint Thomas wrote an excellent article with more on how to play with forced intox safely, and don’t forget to do your own research as well.
Masturbate and meditate
You know that feeling you get after masturbating where every cell in your body is just vibrating and as you feel like you drift into a cloud? That’s a pretty meditative space to be in! Next time you have a solo-sex session, make it a stoned, spiritual one. Set an intention as you work with the plant medicine before you begin to masturbate, taking time to enjoy consumption method you’re choosing to work with. Enjoy your masturbation session and when you’re done take a moment to close your eyes and drift into a stoned meditate state. This is a great time to do any sort of gratitude or mantra practice, and you may wish to take a moment in this cloud of pleasure to say thank you to the universe for the things you have and the things you wish to receive. Breathe into this feeling of deep thankfulness and bask in this afterglow as long as you need.
The good ole classic stoned sex. Share some flower with your lover, and get at it. If you want to up the spiritual ante and really make this hot stoned spiritual sex a moment, you may wish to perform some sex magick! Let the high guide your lovemaking, dedicating the energy you raise to an intention you set with your lover- if you wish. Take the time to have fun and enjoy the process, sharing some post-coital cannabis as you like. When you’re done, do something with your partner to bask in this energy! Eat breakfast, tan naked outside, take a shower, eat some honey, go out for something sweet- the idea is to celebrate LEO, the lover of love, glamour, and joy.
Hot Stoned Stuff to Do
So now you’re stoned, satisfied, centered and ready to take this magick into the world. While anything can be an adventure if you’re stoned enough, these are a few carefully curated activates that are best completed on a hot, high summer day.
It’s pretty much already in the name, but having high tea (or tea with plenty of fancy finger foods and hors d’oeuvre typically served in the early afternoon) is peak ganja God/dess. Just think; being blazed and surrounded by tiny little deserts and fancy dishes. Big Alice in Wonderland vibes! Check out Yelp and Google to see if there are any local tea rooms in your area. You may wish to eat an edible before you head to time for a longer lasting effect, but if you don’t want to ruin your appetite you may prefer to smoke or vape. Or, go full Alice in Wonderland and work with some mushrooms for another way to experience some high tea.
Picnic at the park
Another easy as hell way to celebrate Leo season? Spending time under the sun. And of course, weed is invited. Grab your friends, a picnic basket filled with water, edibles, and your favorite treats and head outside. You may wish to bring some tarot cards or crystals to help you tap into your intuition as you get high and connect to your higher self. Set an intention for what you want out of your experience, whether it’s to enjoy the sun or to connect more with yourself or whoever you’re with. After you’ve enjoyed time outside, don’t forget to thank Mother Earth for her blessing and for the sweet plant medicine she’s shared with you.
No matter how you celebrate your hot, stoned, spiritual summer, may it be the the highest vibe and sexiest yet. May you shine boldly and brightly this Leo season. And so it is!
The post The High Priestess: How to Have a Hot, Stoned, Spiritual Summer appeared first on High Times.
California cannabis edibles manufacturer Plus Products has donated more than $60,000 to the San Francisco LGBT Center, according to a statement from the company. The donation comes from Plus Products’ sales of its Rainbow Sorbet limited edition gummies. The company’s donation totaled $60,937, which represents a $1 contribution to the SF LGBT Center for each package of the gummies sold.
Plus Products manufactures cannabis edibles at its licensed facility in Adelanto, California and is headquartered in San Mateo, in the San Francisco Bay area. Jake Heimark, the CEO and co-founder of the company, said that Plus Products is committed to giving back to the communities where it operates and sells its products.
“This limited edition and the accompanying donation is just a small way for PLUS to show support for the LGBTQ+ community,” said Heimark. “Our company was honored to have the opportunity to work with the SF LGBT Center this year. We care deeply about being a truly engaged partner and look forward to finding more opportunities to work together in the future.”
Serving the LGBTQ Community
The SF LGBT Center helps connect LGBTQ people to each other and opportunities and resources that strengthen and unify the diverse community. Dani Siragusa, the director of development at the SF LGBT Center, said that the donation was an example of the community support the non-profit organization needs to accomplish its mission.
“We’re proud to partner with local businesses that are committed to supporting the SF LGBT Center and building a better Bay Area,” said Siragusa. “This generous donation demonstrates PLUS’s investment in the LGBTQ+ community as well as the overwhelming enthusiasm of fellow Californians to work with us to create a more welcoming, equitable world.”
The SF LGBT Center provides community support including arts and cultural programs, housing, employment, and financial services. The center also offers resources and information for other members of the LGBTQ community including small business owners and queer youth.
Plus Products’ line of cannabis edibles is available at more than 300 licensed dispensaries and delivery services in California. The company also expects to expand its reach by entering the Nevada regulated cannabis market by the end of summer.
The post Edibles Company Reportedly Donated Over $60,000 to San Francisco LGBT Center appeared first on High Times.
Illinois Governor J.B. Pritzker signed two bills on Monday that expanded access to the state’s medical marijuana program, which currently stands at over 80,000 patients. The legislation ensures the medical marijuana program’s status as a permanent system, and adds to the ways in which patients are able to access their cannabis.
“We’re telling each and every one of those patients, we’re on your side,” Pritzker said during Monday’s news conference.
Senate Bill 2023 ensures the permanency of the program and institutes 11 new qualifying conditions that are accepted for entry into the medical cannabis program. Those include autism, chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, migraines, osteoarthritis, anorexia nervosa, and polycystic kidney disease, among other conditions.
The new legislation also guarantees the right of patients to be able to have a home grow operation of up to five plants as of January of next year. Under current provisions, the cannabis plants must be out of public view, and in a locked area. Effective immediately, nurse practitioners and physicians’ assistants will be able to certify patients for inclusion in the program.
Pritzker continues to make good on his campaign promises to ensure the state’s residents’ rights to marijuana. In June, the state legalized recreational marijuana. That legislation has sidestepped many of the issues other states are having with providing retroactive justice to those with past cannabis offenses by expunging and pardoning the records of some 800,000 individuals with prior charges. It takes effect at the start of 2020, and will ensure that the state’s residents may possess up to 30 grams of marijuana at any time. For out of state visitors, the limit will be 15 grams.
Senate Bill 455, another change made to the state’s marijuana policy on Monday, involved the kinds of cannabis access allowed to kids in their schools. Now, underage registered cannabis patients will be able to take their medicine on school grounds, granted that they are being supervised by school staff. That bill also ensures that no one under the age of 21 will be able to purchase smokable marijuana in the state.
This is not the only expansion to the state’s medical cannabis program. In February, the Opioid Alternative Pilot Program was implemented, ensuring that individuals with opioid abuse issues have a fast track to temporary access of medicinal cannabis.
Medical marijuana was originally instituted in the state when Governor Pat Quinn signed legislation into effect in 2013. Originally meant as a four-year program, it was seen as one of the strictest such programs in the nation due to its ban on patients growing their own medicine. Medical marijuana users were required to have a doctor’s written recommendation, and obtain a registered photo ID. Patients were allowed to have 2.5 ounces of cannabis every two weeks, and pledge not to use it in public or around children.
“We are ensuring only those suffering from the most serious diseases receive this treatment,” said the bill’s sponsor, state senator Bill Haine at the time. “This law takes additional steps to prevent fraud and abuse.”
The post Governor of Illinois Signs Bill to Expand State’s Medical Marijuana Program appeared first on High Times.
A campaign is underway in Arizona to put the question of recreational cannabis legalization on the ballot for 2020. The group spearheading the effort, Smart and Safe Arizona, was behind a push to legalize cannabis in 2016. Their previous campaign faced major opposition from the Arizona Chamber of Commerce. But Smart and Safe Arizona says their new proposal addresses the problems and concerns state officials had with the 2016 measure. The current proposal would allow adults 21 and over to legally possess up to an ounce of cannabis.
Arizona Group Starts Petition to Put Legal Pot on the 2020 Ballot
The last time Arizona tried to legalize recreational cannabis, the state tried to do it through the legislature. In 2018, a bipartisan pair of House lawmakers introduced a bill to legalize possession up to an ounce and permit home cultivation of up to six mature plants. The bill also would have banned public smoking, and like statutes in many states, it would have let municipalities opt out. But Representatives Todd Clodfelter and Mark Cardenas couldn’t get their proposal past the judiciary committee.
This time, however, Arizona legalization advocates want to put the issue directly to voters. It’s the same approach the state took in 2016, when voter initiative Proposition 205 made it onto the ballot, only to lose by fewer that 100,000 votes.
But this time is different, says Stacy Pearson, who’s leading the campaign to get recreational legalization on the 2020 ballot. “It’s just simply a better policy,” Pearson said. “We’ve had four additional years to see what’s happened nationally,” she added.
In 2016, 899,605 people voted in favor of Proposition 205. And to get the new measure on the ballot, Smart and Safe Arizona only needs to collect about 240,000 signatures. Smart and Safe Arizona has already filed the paperwork with the Secretary of State to put its proposed measure on the ballot. The high likelihood that the campaign will succeed could pressure lawmakers to forward their own proposal ahead of a voter referendum in 2020.
Arizona Divided on Cannabis Legalization
Arizona has had legal medical cannabis since 2010, when Proposition 203 eked by with 50.1 percent of the vote. That split over cannabis has persisted, and well-funded opposition could hinder the latest push to put recreational legalization to voters in 2020. This time, however, advocates feel like they have the evidence and the arguments to convince the opposition to change its tune.
Pearson said the argument her campaign hears most is that cannabis products aren’t safe. But that “doesn’t mean it’s not here,” Pearson said. “What we’re asking voters to do is take something that is on the black market currently and move it to a place where it’s tested, taxed, controlled, regulated, and ensure that it’s not being sold to minors.”
The Arizona Chamber of Commerce has stated it’s willing to give legalization proposals a new hearing. But in light of past opposition, the burden of proof will be high. “The new initiative for the 2020 ballot—we’ll look at it with fresh eyes,” said Garrick Taylor, Senior Vice President, Government Relations & Communications for the Chamber of Commerce.
That look should pick out a few different things this time around. Borrowing for successful legalization measures in other states, Smart and Safe Arizona’s proposal includes provisions for expunging criminal records for prior marijuana convictions. It would also ban certain “candy-type” edibles in an effort to head off arguments about legalization’s risk to children.
Tax provisions in the new proposal might also bring some state officials on board. The measure would tax retail sales like any other consumer product, while including an excise tax of 16 percent. Smart and Safe Arizona says revenue from excise taxes alone could raise more than $300 million for the state budget.
The post Arizona Voters May Have Recreational Cannabis on the 2020 Ballot appeared first on High Times.
As the legalization of cannabis continues to spread across the U.S., both THC and CBD products are rapidly growing in popularity, and we can expect that popularity to increase in the coming years. The cannabis industry alone is expected to account for nearly $16.9 billion in revenue this year.
Subsequently, there is a rising need among infused product manufacturers for sufficient filling machinery for CBD and THC products. These products, including CBD oil cartridges, require filling equipment that can provide quick turnaround, detailed parts and simple changeover and cleanup, among other factors. Let’s go over the different types of filling machinery used for these products.
Vial Filling Machines
For small vial packages made of glass, metal or plastic, vial filling machines are available. Often used for a variety of pharmaceutical products, they’re now suitable for filling liquid THC and CBD oil. Vial fillers are also often suitable for filling liquid products of varying viscosity levels, with either the installation of peristaltic pumps or volumetric filling stations.
Rotary fillers can also fill containers at high speeds and with quick turnaround, and are ideal for filling various types and sizes of containers made of materials such as plastic, metal or glass. A good rotary filler will be able to meet the demands of high-speed environments consistently and with accuracy.
Fixed or Variable Volume Cartridge Filling ToolsAs the industry develops more demand for high-quality filling and other types of equipment, more machines are likely to be manufactured or configured specifically with these types of products in mind.
Fixed and variable volume cartridge filling tools often feature a single-handed operation and are used to rapidly fill cartridges for THC and CBD oils used for vaping. With fixed volume fillers, you’ll be able to designate a specific and consistent volume, while variable volume models allow for different fill volumes for applications requiring versatility.
Automatic filling machines will be able to fill a large number of products at varying speed settings, without the need for manual operation. These machines can fill many different types of products with consistency that helps maintain optimal productivity. As with other fillers, automatic fillers are often customizable in a wide variety of configurations.
For concentrates, filling syringes are ideal in many cases. Many patients are in need of a specific dosage of oil, and a syringe can allow for accuracy through the inclusion of measurement indicators. Many dispensaries sell syringe units, so this type of packaging method is likely to continue to rise in popularity.
Other Types of Equipment for Liquid Cannabis Packaging
In addition to reliable filling systems, manufacturers should make sure every other aspect of their packaging lines is covered with high-quality equipment. Facilities will require a variety of conveyors to transport products from one end of the line to the other, cleaners to ensure that bottles or other containers are clean prior to filling, and labelers to apply custom labels to packaging, among other machinery.
With one or more of these types of liquid fillers in a facility, companies can maintain accuracy and efficiency throughout their operations when filling CBD or THC products. As the industry develops more demand for high-quality filling and other types of equipment, more machines are likely to be manufactured or configured specifically with these types of products in mind.
The post Choosing Filling Machinery for CBD and THC Products appeared first on Cannabis Industry Journal.
High Times’ cultivation specialist Danny Danko answers all your burning questions about being the best grower you can be. But first, some quick tips from the expert himself:
Calibrate your pH and PPM meters monthly in order to ensure they’re working properly.
Use a timer to turn off CO2 supplementation equipment when your lights are off.
Intake fans for fresh air should be installed low in your room, and, because heat rises, exhaust fans should be installed near the top.
Subject: Vegetative Stage From: Martha M.
How do I know when plants are in the vegetative stage? I’m new and I don’t understand all the growing terms. Thank you!
There are two main stages of cannabis plant growth: the vegetative stage and the flowering stage. These stages represent the different growth patterns of annuals from spring into summer and then into fall, when the plants reach maturity. When a seedling sprouts, it enters the vegetative stage, during which it grows branches and leaves. Outdoors, as summer ends and light begins to diminish, the plant enters the flowering stage, during which it slows branch and leaf growth while focusing its energy on producing male or female flowers in order to fill up with seeds before it dies with the first frost of winter.
Indoors, we re-create these seasons using a timer into which we plug our grow lights. For vegetative growth, we provide our plants with 18 or more hours of light per day. When we decide to induce flowering, we cut the light cycle to 12 hours on and 12 hours off per day. The plant will then transition from the vegetative stage to the flowering stage and begin its march to harvest.
a Strain From: Charles T.
My question is in regard to the preservation of a strain that has been reduced over time from environmental or genetic drift by using colloidal silver to produce feminized seeds. I’m talking about an incredible strain that I obtained through clippings when it had already been cloned many times and has since been cloned many more times. My biggest concern comes from the difficulty I’m lately having getting this strain to root during the cloning phase. I’m waiting on a shipment of 120 PPM colloidal silver; once it arrives, I plan to begin my first feminized-seed project. I would like to know what I should expect from the seeds produced. Will they also have difficulty rooting, or should the genetic blueprint be completely restored? Thanks for any help you can give me!
You are embarking on an interesting but difficult breeding project. You’re planning to spray colloidal silver on your female flowers in order to force them to show hermaphroditic tendencies and induce “male” flowers to form within them.
The pollen from these flowers contains no male genes, so this should result in females or hermaphrodites. When this pollen is spread onto the same female flowers, it’s called “selfing,” or creating an S1. If all goes well, the resulting seeds will be similar or identical to the original clone-only plant.
A different way to bring back the vigor of the original hybrid is to use a tissue-culture technique. This is similar to cloning, but on a smaller, cellular level. Once a plant has been duplicated with tissue culture, the resulting cuttings will be free of any pests, pathogens, diseases or other issues that result from stress, such as difficulty rooting or a general lack of vigor or potency.
Subject: Twins! From: UP Grower
Hi! We love reading your expert grow advice in High Times. We’ve been growing in Michigan for about six years and have used both seeds and clones. We recently purchased some feminized Gelato seeds, one of which sprouted twins! (Included is a photo you can publish to show what we mean.) We’ve never seen this mentioned in High Times. Is it a rare occurrence?
Thanks for the kind words! Your plants are exhibiting a common mutation called polyembryony, in which two or more embryos exist inside one seed. Thus, like identical human twins, the seedlings that emerge will be exact copies of each other.
Subject: No-Till Tent From: Giggle Grassachusetts
Greetings again! I’ve been wanting to create a no-till living soil (teeming with worms and microbes and using soil blended
with compost). I have a 2′ x 2′ and a 2′ x 4′ tent. Is this possible?
If so, do you have any recommendations as to what to use to hold the soil? I have found a few fabric containers, but they have compartments. Do I need to build my own container? I’d prefer to use fabric instead of wood. Also, would it be a bad idea to bury compostable kitchen scraps in the soil? Thanks for the awesome podcast!
No-till farming is a very interesting growing concept in which soil is left undisturbed and organic material is added on top. Compost and other natural soil enhancers are piled on, and cover crops such as clover are grown and gently mixed into the top layer of soil in order to avoid destroying the beneficial mycelia that permeate the medium.
No-till growing can be accomplished in beds, boxes or fabric containers in even the smallest of spaces, but the important thing is to avoid adding any nonorganic or toxic nutrients or pesticides to your soil mix. It’s better to put your kitchen scraps into your compost bin or pile in order for them to heat up, break down and cure, rather than adding them directly into your soil. Thanks for your support of the Free Weed With Danny Danko podcast!
Overfeed! From: Peter G.
Remember the good times from three years ago on the 420/710 catamaran cruise? This is Pete, who was disgusted with the Amsterdam
Cup the previous year. You said you remembered me, but I don’t know how because you obviously come into contact with many people.
Anyhow, I’m happy to report I’m four weeks into flowering a spectacular Acapulco Gold grown in coco under LED and fluorescent lighting to limit my power footprint. She’s looking great despite the lighting limitations. I’m alternating nutes and water every fourth day, and it seems to be working great. This way I’m not overwatering or overfeeding.
I switched to a 10/14-hour light/dark photoperiod from a 12/12 cycle a week ago as advised by Jorge Cervantes in his Cannabis Encyclopedia. The branches have just started to sag from the bud weight, and I’m now staking the plant to relieve any stress. Maybe next time I’ll just go with SOG netting, but it didn’t seem feasible to go that route in a closet. I really don’t have a
question, I just wanted to reach out and say thank you for all the great advice you give in your column.
Wow! Thanks for reaching out and thanks for the tips on properly feeding your plants. Overfeeding and overwatering are the two biggest mistakes made by beginner growers, and it’s always best to err on the side of caution as you describe. I’ll have to do a bit more research on the 10/14-hour photoperiod you mentioned because I haven’t heard of that being used before, unless it’s to save money on electricity or to reduce heat at the canopy level.
Subject: Wet and Dry Cycles From: Humdrum Bum
I’m about to start a RDWC (recirculating deep-water culture) six-bucket system, which does not allow the plant’s roots to receive a dry period. Is the dry period important, or will plants thrive
with the proper amount of oxygen?
The wet/dry period relates to growing in a soil or coco-based mix. With most types of hydroponics, the nutrient solution is so well oxygenated that the roots can handle not drying out; in fact, they must remain moist at all times.
Deep-water culture relies on the roots dangling into an aerated solution so they have access to water, food and oxygen at all times. This mist feeds the roots and allows the plants to exhibit explosive growth rates. The important thing is to always keep the solution at the right temperature, pH level and PPM levels of nutrient salts in order for the plants to thrive.
Subject: Wick System From: A. Cabrera
I am currently in the process of setting up a hydroponic grow. I have chosen to go with wick hydroponics, since this will be my first run of growing. I have built a frame for a box that will be 4″
tall, 4′ long and 20″ wide. The walls will be wood sealed with caulking then covered with Mylar. I am going to use a 120-volt 4-foot T8 ballast with two 16-volt LED bulbs until the plants are about 1 to 1½ feet tall in the vegetation stage, and from that point I will change to an LED grow lamp. I’m planning on using 5-gallon
buckets as reservoirs with rope leading up to either a 3-gallon bucket or a 1-gallon nursery pot. I am at a loss on which grow medium I should transfer the plants to once they are out of the seedling stage. I currently have the plants outdoors in Sunshine brand seedling mix. I water once or twice daily. I have two
questions: What is a good material to use as a wick that will not rot? And what grow medium can you recommend?
A wick system uses capillary action to suck up water from a reservoir as plants need it. Cotton ropes are easy to find and use as a wick, but they are also prone to rot when exposed to water over time. Nylon rope will last longer, and it’s the best material to use for a wick system as long as you’re not opposed to using something acrylic and unnatural.
You can continue to use the Sunshine mix or transplant your plants into a different soilless mix such as ProMix, which is peat-based, or coco coir, which is made from the recycled husks of coconuts. Your roots will suck up whatever they desire, but you must be sure your reservoir buckets contain nutrient solution.
Seeds From: Uncle Buck
Hi, Danny—please help! I’ve accidentally mixed my seeds, both autos and feminized. I have managed to separate them by size.
Now I have three normal-size and nine small grey ones, and I have no idea which are which. Additionally, I don’t know how many of each I originally had. Cheers from Australia!
Dear Uncle Buck,
The size of the seeds will not tell you which are auto-flowering and which are feminized. You must plant them and grow them out to determine which are which. The ones that begin to flower regardless of the amount of light they receive are the autos. The others will be the feminized ones. Good luck!
Send your cannabis-cultivation questions
This feature was published in the March 2019 issue of High Times magazine. Subscribe right here.
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Cannabis encourages us to express our vulnerabilities. For those of us, who, through trauma and pain, have hidden from ourselves and the world, the plant has encouraged us to dive deep into ourselves and heal the pain that we’ve run from most of our lives. When Lisette Barajas, better known as Mehndi420 on Instagram, first started smoking in 2009, she didn’t know that the plant would help her heal from childhood sexual assault and allow her space to discover her passion for art therapy through henna.
“Unfortunately, I was sexually molested by my neighbor when I was 5-years-old,” Barajas shared with High Times. “That experience created a lot of shame and confusion.”
When she was younger, Barajas attended therapy but it was to address the domestic violence issues she was experiencing at home. “I never addressed the molestation because my brain created a defense mechanism known as childhood amnesia,” she said.
In 2009 while working on obtaining her Bachelor of Arts in Social Work from California State University, Los Angeles, Baraja’s began to use cannabis recreationally. Around this time she was also taking a sociology course, which forced her to accept that her molestation was real.
“Although I started using cannabis recreationally, it transcended into something more than that. Through cannabis, I have been able to cope with and process childhood trauma.” she said. “Smoking helped me deal with some of the emotions and triggers that come with working through abuse. I decided to become a social worker and now [I’m] transitioning into [art] therapy because of my lived experience.”
It wasn’t until 2018 when cannabis became legal in California that Barajas began to take her henna hobby seriously and design cannabis motifs.
“I have always doodled and loved to draw on myself. Henna allowed me to do just that minus the toxic chemicals of a [marker]. I first began by making my own paste, then I practiced elements, then [I] developed my own design style. My style is unique [because] I use the cannabis leaf as a motif and that isn’t common in the henna community,” said Barajas. “I began to apply henna designs with paint onto my personal smoking accessories. I started with a lighter, then a bubbler, and now I’m doing bongs.”
She hopes that her work will help break the stigma of the plant and usher in more feminine energy into an industry that is heavily dominated by men. The cannabis industry is a boys club, and artists like Barajas want to shift the aesthetic to one that celebrates the feminine energy of the plant and the women who also indulge in marijuana’s goodness.
“The [cannabis] industry is heavily dominated by men. Due to this, a lot of smoking accessories aren’t very appealing, some even look like penises. I want to smoke out of a piece that is pretty and that makes me feel good. Most pipes and bongs are just for function, and I want function and aesthetic,” she shared with High Times.
Scrolling through her Instagram you will see her feminine designs grace the curves of bongs and women. “I want to feminize the cannabis industry and make it more female-friendly. Whether that be through designing bongs or doing lingerie-style henna on influencers. I want to bring out the creativity that cannabis inspires in women,” she wrote over email.
Through her relationship with cannabis, Barajas has become aware of herself in so many ways. Her henna designs exemplify so much. She uses the traditional henna art form on cannabis accessories to illustrate how, if we all continue to search, we can find various ways to explore our vulnerabilities and heal our pains.
“Cannabis has helped me cope with the triggers that come with abuse. It has helped me relax and reflect on my trauma, thus helping me connect with other people with similar experience,” shares Barajas. “Combining cannabis and henna to practice mindful meditation through art therapy has helped me heal and I want to share that with others.”
She is preparing to go back and get her masters in Art Therapy, and she plans to incorporate all forms of cannabis and plant medicine into her her future work. Currently, she is working on collaborations with MAV Glass and Functional China.
The post High Folks: Lisette Barajas on Healing Herself Through Henna and Marijuana appeared first on High Times.
In a decision that attorneys say could open the door to other class-action lawsuits, a petition has been approved to seal the criminal records of 350 people with marijuana misdemeanors in Manhattan.
Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance Jr. worked with nonprofit and pro-bono lawyers from groups like the Legal Aid Society to make the mass record sealing a reality. The move was set into motion by a change to New York’s Raise the Age Act. That 2017 legislation stated that people with two or less nonviolent offenses would be eligible to have their records sealed after a decade if they had no new offenses on their record.
But as good as that provision sounded, it has been difficult for individuals to access on their own. 1,200 people have managed to get their records wiped clean, out of the estimated 600,000 who are eligible for the program. That’s due to barriers that stand in the way of average citizens, who may not be aware of the policy change, or have issues navigating the bureaucracy that is obligatory to claim the record sealing.
New York has taken a singular approach to marijuana policy over the past year, a period that began with Governor Andrew Cuomo pledging to legalize recreational cannabis during his reelection campaign. After much hype, the plan ran aground over issues of social justice and tax structure. But a few weeks ago, legislators somewhat resuscitated the state’s desire to change marijuana policy when they passed a bill that decriminalized possession of small amounts of cannabis, reducing penalties to $50 for one ounce and $200 for amounts between one and two ounces.
But while policy debates raged in Albany, local jurisdictions in New York were also considering measures that would dismantle harmful Drug War policies. In April, the New York City Council considered a bill to ban many employers from instituting mandatory drug tests for employees. It ended up being passed by a vote of 40 to 4, and will apply even to companies whose headquarters are located outside of New York state. The council also passed a bill that bans people on probation from being tested for marijuana, a common parole and probation violation that can have disastrous effects on a person’s job and housing prospects.
Much of the push to remove marijuana offenses from the state’s criminal justice system is based on the growing acceptance of the fact that much of the war on drugs was racially motivated. Although usage rates have largely been shown to be consistent across racial groups, Black and Latino individuals have consistently been arrested and convicted at higher rates than whites. That disparity led one group of Black lawmakers to threaten to oppose Cuomo’s legalization plans if they did not include sufficient plans to correct past marijuana-related racial injustice.
The Wall Street Journal article announcing the mass record sealing quoted a 43-year-old single father named Devin whose two 1997 marijuana possession misdemeanors were proving prohibitive in his job search. “I feel vindicated and grateful,” he said. “Everyone in my family had good jobs, and I’m trying to follow in their footsteps. If I can get a job with the city, I’ll be doing even better than I’m doing now.”
The post NYC to Seal Marijuana Misdemeanor Records for Roughly 350 People appeared first on High Times.
¿Eres un conocedor de cannabis que busca llevar su experiencia al siguiente nivel? Hemos compilado una lista de algunos comestibles de hierba altamente potentes.
En la vida de todos los amantes del cannabis, llega el momento de explorar las fronteras de la tolerancia hacia los comestibles de marihuana. Ser capaz de perfeccionar un nivel ideal de dosificación de THC, medido en miligramos, es un conocimiento útil para cualquier persona que guste del cannabis, pero honestamente no conocía el mío, aparte de saber que era “mucho”. Me propuse empujar a propósito esos límites y descubrí cuán alto podría llegar.
Determinando tu dosis
La última vez que me sentí incómodamente alto fue durante un juicio para una competencia de comestibles para High Times Cannabis Cup hace años , mucho antes de que los resultados de laboratorio en las etiquetas fueran la regla y no la excepción. Entendiendo que tengo una tolerancia extremadamente alta, descubrí mi rango de dosificación efectivo a través del proceso de investigación de este artículo, pero no voy a compartir ese número con usted. Ese es mi numero. Es probable que su dosis efectiva sea muy diferente de la mía. ¡Lo que me eleva es probable que difiera de la persona promedio en 100 miligramos o más!
El consumo de cannabis no es un concurso para determinar quién puede ingerir más, por lo que es mucho más importante que determine su rango ideal que compararlo con el de otra persona. No existe una dosis estándar de marihuana *, o incluso un rango de dosis, que se adapte a todas las personas. El tipo de cuerpo, el peso, la dieta y el metabolismo juegan un papel importante en la forma en que las diferentes personas experimentan los comestibles de marihuana. La cantidad que una persona puede consumir cómodamente podría hacer que otra se ponga paranoica, desorientada y con náuseas.
(* El Estado de Colorado define “1 dosis” como igual a 10 miligramos de THC, una cantidad relativamente pequeña destinada a guiar a los nuevos usuarios recreativos. Editor)
Si bien exagerar con los comestibles de hierba no suele ser peligroso y nunca ha sido fatal, puede ser muy incómodo. Cuando experimente con dosis altas de comestibles, siempre es una buena idea tener algo de CBD a mano, ya que este cannabinoide actúa como un antídoto para aquellos que han consumido demasiado THC.
Más importante aún, no sobre medicarse en primer lugar. Comience con poco y vaya despacio, consumiendo solo 10 mg. o incluso menos si te consideras un peso ligero o estás comiendo cannabis por primera vez. Espere al menos 4 horas para ver cómo se siente antes de comer más, ya que el cannabis tarda un tiempo en digerirse por completo, especialmente si ha comido una comida grande ese día. Intente aumentar la dosis de 5 a 10 mg. cada día, continúa subiendo hasta encontrar un lugar donde te sientas cómodo. Recuerde, ¡siempre puede comer más, pero no puede comer menos!
Los beneficios de los comestibles megadosificados
Los comestibles de alta dosis de marihuana tienen una base de admiradores pequeña pero dedicada, y estos pacientes tienden a comprar comestibles con más frecuencia que el usuario casual promedio. No es sorprendente que estos consumidores incluyan pacientes gravemente enfermos que luchan contra los estragos del cáncer y otras enfermedades debilitantes junto con aquellos que padecen dolor crónico intenso. Varios expertos señalaron que las dosis altas de comestibles de hierba son populares entre los insomnes y otras personas que buscan ayuda para dormir.
Sorprendentemente, un grupo demográfico particular está comprando muchos comestibles en dosis altas, pero no por la razón que podría pensar. Aaron Justis, propietario del Colectivo Buds and Roses, explica que las personas mayores son, por mucho, los mayores consumidores de comestibles de alta dosis, pero están utilizando estos potentes productos para microdosificar durante todo el día.
“Nuestra clientela no está comprando comestibles en dosis altas para llegar a estar súper alto”, afirma Justis. “Están comiendo solo un poco a la vez y, por lo general, hacen que los comestibles duren una semana o más”.
Tiene sentido porque no solo es mucho menos costoso comprar un producto comestible de dosis alta en lugar de 10 productos de dosis moderada o baja, sino que el paciente también puede comer menos para lograr los mismos resultados. Cuando se trata de la mayoría de los comestibles de marihuana, significa menos ingesta de ingredientes poco saludables como azúcares y grasas.
Muchos de los consumidores de altas dosis de comestibles con los que hablé, especialmente las mujeres, prefieren esta opción debido al deseo de comer menos y mantenerse en forma. “No quiero desperdiciar mis calorías comiendo una gran galleta medicada o brownie que nunca tendrá un sabor tan bueno como uno no medicado”, explica la abogada Mara Felsen. “Quiero algo que entregue una dosis poderosa en un bocado o dos”.
Ninguno de los comestibles en este artículo están destinados a ser consumido en una sola sesión; ¡especialmente no los brownies de 1000 miligramos! Para la mayoría de las personas, comer tanto THC te hará sentir enfermo. (O puede que solo duermas de 12 a 24 horas).
Para ser lo más justo posible, probé estos comestibles de hierba en las mismas condiciones, a la misma hora del día, con el estómago casi vacío. También dejé un mínimo de cuatro días de recuperación entre probar otro comestible. Al hacerlo, aprendí:
No todas las afirmaciones de las etiquetas y los resultados de las pruebas de laboratorio fueron precisos, a juzgar por la fuerza de los efectos. Por ejemplo, un 175 mg. Cheeba Chew me puso sobre el borde “esto ya no es divertido”, mientras que un 200 mg. Starr gomoso me puso agradablemente emocionado.
Algunas veces hubo variaciones de dosificación dentro de un solo producto. Esto podría deberse a que el producto no se mezcló adecuadamente, o también podría ser que los bordes de una sartén de productos horneados descarboxilan más que el interior (un amigo productor de comestibles una vez probó sus brownies en el laboratorio y confirmó que este fenómeno puede ocurrir) . Incluso podría deberse a diferencias en mi metabolismo ese día. Sin embargo, es posible experimentar pequeñas variaciones dentro de un solo comestible dividido en porciones más pequeñas.
Por lo tanto, abastezca su refrigerador con muchos refrigerios saludables y sin medicamentos para combatir los bocadillos, tenga a mano mucha agua helada en caso de boca de algodón y prepárese para viajar más allá de los brotes. Comenzando con 175 miligramos de Cheeba Chew y trabajando hasta el comestible más psicodélico jamás creado: 1000 mg. brownie: exploremos algunos de los productos de dosis altas más populares de California.
Cheeba Chews Deca Dose | cheebachews.com 175 milligrams of THC
Es sorprendente que 175 mg. de THC esten empacados en una sola pieza de chicloso masticable del tamaño de un bocado, y este comestible se presenta fuerte y rápido. Vienen empaquetados uno a una caja, pero no sería demasiado difícil cortar en trozos más pequeños; y recomiendo hacer eso. El sabor es indudablemente herbáceo, sin dejar dudas de que estás consumiendo una marihuana comestible muy fuertemente dosificada. ¡Afortunadamente, no tienes que comer mucho! Con una reputación estelar de consistencia, puede estar seguro de que cada vez que obtenga un Cheeba Chew, tendrá una experiencia predecible.
Hashman Infused Sativa Dark Chocolate | hashmaninfused.net 200 mg. of THC
Es bueno poder elegir entre variedades sativas e índicas al elegir comestibles, y Hashman’s no decepciona. Este chocolate sativa inspira un subidón vivo perfecto para el trabajo creativo nocturno. El empaque recientemente rediseñado facilita la comprensión de cuánto consume, con una rueda de chocolate ingeniosamente dividida en 10 segmentos de 20 mg. THC cada uno. Con un ligero matiz de cannabis, este chocolate es de alta calidad y sabroso, ¡adecuado para cuando quieras darte un capricho!
Starr 1 Purple Star Gummies | Twitter: @starr1redstar 200 mg. of THC
A diferencia de muchos caramelos gomosos infundidos con THC, el medicamento que contienen se incorpora al caramelo, no se rocía sobre él. El sabor es aceptable, no demasiado dulce, con el único indicio de que el sabor del cannabis es un ligero matiz amargo. La dosis, que reclama 200 mg. por gominola, no parece exacta. Estas gominolas son fuertes, comí un dulce pequeño y estuve agradablemente high durante horas, pero 200 mg. normalmente me habría hecho correr por el spray de CBD, y no fueron necesarias tales medidas de rescate.
Punch Bars | punchedibles.com 225 mg. of THC
Cuando vi por primera vez esta caja de chocolate en miniatura que decía contener 225 mg. THC, era escéptico, pero Punch hace honor a su nombre. Dividido incrementalmente en nueve piezas pequeñas de 25 mg. cada uno, es fácil suspender una dosis que tenga sentido para usted. Con una agradable textura cremosa, el chocolate tiene un fuerte sabor a cannabis, pero la cantidad que necesita comer es tan pequeña que, de todos modos, apenas importa. La dosificación también parece consistente en toda la barra, como de barra en barra. La variedad de chocolate con leche y mantequilla de maní tiene algunos sabores dulces y salados.
Topanga Harvest Mini Muffins | Instagram: @topangaharvestco 280 mg. of THC
¡Mi nuevo comestible favorito! Me gustó todo acerca de estos pequeños bocados de exquisitez medicada. Con un agradable sabor afrutado, la variedad de arándanos no es demasiado dulce y apenas sabe a cannabis. Ocho panecillos del tamaño de un bocado que contienen 35 mg. vienen en el paquete para una dosis total de THC de 280 mg. Es fácil valorar su dosis comiendo solo algunas de estas pequeñas magdalenas, ¡pero saben tan bien que se sentirá tentado a comer más! El zumbido del THC llegó rápidamente y me dejó relajado todo el día.
Waska Medical Cannabis Cookies and Cream Hemp Milk | chocowaska.com 300 mg. of THC
El personal de Buds and Roses afirma que este es uno de sus comestibles de marihuana de alta dosis más populares, especialmente para personas con problemas de sueño. La botella pequeña de 2 onzas contiene 300 mg. de THC en unos sorbos de leche de cáñamo vegana, sin gluten y sin OGM. Quería que me gustara este producto, ¡realmente lo hice! Está bien hecho, bien etiquetado, es razonablemente saludable y está hecho de cáñamo, pero el sabor era empalagosamente dulce y extremadamente herbal. Sin embargo, es potente y dormí bien. Intente diluirlo con té o agregarlo a un batido para una sensación de sabor más agradable.
Day Dreamers | daydreamerschocolates.com Dreamcatcher 360 Chocolate 360 mg. of THC
Un líder de la industria, este chocolate de dosis alta se divide en seis segmentos envasados individualmente de 60 mg. THC cada uno, lo que hace que sea muy fácil valorar su dosis, ¡incluso si el caramelo se derrite! Si bien hay un poco de sabor a cannabis, este producto es muy efectivo y parece estar dosificado de manera confiable para una experiencia constante cada vez.
Este paquete de dulces de cinta gomosa afirma contener 375 mg. de THC, pero después de comer la mitad de la bolsa, apenas sentí nada. En general, el dulce sabe bien, pero algunas cintas tenían un fuerte sabor a cannabis, mientras que otras no tenían ninguno, lo que significa que incluso dentro del paquete el producto no se dosifica de manera consistente. Incluso al elegir una bolsa para comprar en un colectivo local, el presupuesto comentó que los paquetes de Voodoo Sours a menudo se vuelven bastante aceitosos en el interior, por lo que parece que estos fueron medicados con aceite agregado.
Venice Cookie Company | venicecookiecompany.com The 4.20 Brownie – Cookies & Cream 1,000 mg. of THC
Yowza, 1,000 mg. de THC en un solo brownie de tamaño normal! Si bien hablé con muchas personas que pensaban que tal noción era absurda, en realidad estos brownies son bastante convenientes para guardar en el congelador. Como obtienes tantas dosis de una sola barra, también terminan siendo una buena ganga para aquellos con un presupuesto limitado. Este brownie cuenta con una textura rica y cremosa que te permite cortarlo en porciones adecuadas con un mínimo desmoronamiento, además de que el cannabis se distribuyó uniformemente en todo el producto horneado. Teniendo en cuenta la inmensa dosis, el sabor a hierbas era fuerte pero no abrumador.
Korova Black Bar Brownie| korovaedibles.com 1,000 mg. of THC
Casi tan bueno como el brownie de Venice Cookie Company 4:20, este producto es un poco más seco y un poco más desmenuzable …. Un aroma picante generalmente presagia un fuerte sabor a hierbas, pero afortunadamente el aroma de este brownie fue más fuerte que su sabor. Es importante administrar una dosis fuerte en pequeños bocados, pero noté ligeras variaciones en los efectos de pieza a pieza, lo que significa que el cannabis debe incorporarse de manera más consistente en la masa general.
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